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Juanetes ¿Se pueden corregir sin pasar por el quirófano?

Hsn Ortopedia Bs. As. Parte I Como comenzamos diciendo en la edición del mes pasado, el juanete, denominado técnicamente Hallux valgus, es una deformidad que afecta al primer dedo del pie, que hace que, en vez de estar

Hsn Ortopedia Bs. As.

Parte I

Como comenzamos diciendo en la edición del mes pasado, el juanete, denominado técnicamente Hallux valgus, es una deformidad que afecta al primer dedo del pie, que hace que, en vez de estar direccionado hacia adelante, se incline hacia el segundo dedo. Esta desviación del dedo “gordo” provoca un bulto en el borde interno del pie que se conoce con el nombre de “juanete”. Pocas personas acuden al especialista hasta que duele o la deformación es acusada. 

En el mercado se encuentra multitud de material como férulas o correctores para tratar esta deformación. Pero, ¿son eficaces? ¿En realidad se pueden corregir los juanetes?  La respuesta es, no se puede corregir. Es un hueso que ha ido creciendo debido a los pequeños y continuados impactos de la pisada, y si ya se ha desarrollado, ya no hay solución, es imposible hacer que ‘desaparezcan’. Pero aún así, recomendamos  agotar todas las instancias antes de exponerse a una intervención quirúrgica.

No hay que olvidar que el motivo principal por el que se desarrollan es la manera de pisar. Por ello, tampoco tiene sentido colocarse estos productos correctores por la noche, cuando está en descanso, ya que el juanete no aumenta, ni tampoco disminuye. Como mucho, podrían ayudar a que disminuyera la inflamación y relajar algunas estructuras tendinosas pero, en ningún caso, harán que disminuya el hueso que se ha creado, e, incluso, en algunas ocasiones, provocan que el usuario no pueda dormir por la incomodidad. Las férulas de silicona que se colocan entre el primer y segundo dedo pueden reducir la fricción interdigital y evitar el desarrollo de callosidades, pero nada más.

Entonces, las personas susceptibles a desarrollarlos ¿pueden tomar alguna medida para prevenirlos? La buena noticia es que sí. Si la madre o la abuela tienen juanetes, seguramente se podría evitar que la nieta los desarrollara, ya que, en realidad, lo que ha heredado ha sido la forma de pisar. Ninguna niña ni niño nace con un juanete. Lo idóneo es acudir a un especialista para realizarse un estudio biomecánico de la pisada y averiguar si existe una tendencia a desarrollar juanetes para así poder aplicar medidas de prevención. Estas se basan en mejorar el apoyo del pie con plantillas personalizadas para repartir la descarga, realizar mucho trabajo de potenciación muscular para reforzar la zona y educación para andar de manera adecuada.

Las plantillas actuales distan mucho de las que se utilizaban años atrás: son mucho más flexibles y su principal objetivo es repartir de forma correcta la carga y controlar la excesiva pronación, sin atrofiar la musculatura del pie que es del todo necesaria.

Pero, además del uso de plantillas, ¿cómo debe ser un calzado correcto? hay que fijarse en tres aspectos muy importantes: la altura (con un tacón de dos centímetros, el peso corporal se reparte al 50% entre el talón y la zona de debajo de los dedos); que sea sin punta (que oprime los dedos y hace que el primer dedo se deforme hacia adentro); y la horma del zapato (que no sea estrecha, pues la compresión actúa de igual manera que los impactos y hace que el hueso del juanete crezca). En resumen, “que el pie quepa bien”.

Lic. Juan Pablo Garro

Hsn Ortopedia Deportiva Bs. As.

(011) 15-5331-9945 / (0348) 15-440-9153





Atención en Ing. Maschwitz (Instituto Prevent)

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